on Sep 3rd, 2013Meeting people

Meeting people
Hello, Mr/Ms……….I’m……
It’s nice to meet you.
-(it’s) nice to meet you, too.
May I introduce you to………?
I’d like you to introduce to……
Have you met….?

Offering hospitality

Can I take your coat?
Please come in and take a seat.
Can I get you a cup of coffee/tea?
Would you like something to drink?
-Yes, please/Yes, that would be great.
-No thank you./No , thanks.

Role 1
You work in a finance department of your company. Today a new colleague from your overseas parent company is coming to the office for the first time. You have been asked to welcome the new colleague, show him/her around the office, and make him/her feel comfortable. At the end you should introduce your new colleague to the head of the department.

Role 2
It’s your first day in your new job as a member of the fiancé department in one of your company’s European subsidiaries. You only speak English, but hope to start learning the local language soon. One of your colleagues will meet you and show you around the company. Make small talk and ask questions about the company. (about number of people work there, canteen, company’s culture (working traditions, atmosphere, relations of employees and managers, etc) language classes, company’s perks,

on Mar 8th, 2012Revision units 1-9

1. Why the tertiary sector regularly growing in the industrialized countries?
2. What are the function of the senior managers?
3. What are advantages and disadvantages of functional organizations?
4. What are the appproaches to theories of Douglas McGregor callled Theory X and Theory callled Y?
5. How docompanies fill vacant positions?
6. Do you think someone can learn to become a manager or do you need particuar skills?
7. Do you think women managers have any general advantages over men?
8. Would you like to spend most of your carreer working for large or small companies? Why?
9. What benefits would you like in your job?
10. Is the decline of manufacturing in the old industrialized countries inevitable?
11. What makes a good manager?
12. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the traditional functional structure used by many large companies?
13. What can managers do to motivate people?
14. To what extent should multinationals take into account local cultural characteristics when organizing subsidaries?
15. Describe how 3 sectors of the economy are envolved to make a cup of tea.
16. What do the production and operation managers do? What qualities do they need at their work?
17. Why global supply chains are are so important to positive international consequences?
18. What are the difference between the pull and push strategies?

on Feb 8th, 2012Companies

Private limited company-a type of company that offers limited liability to its shareholders but that places certain restrictions on its ownership. These restrictions are spelled out in the company’s articles of association or bylaws and are meant to prevent any hostile takeover attempt.
The major ownership restriction are: (1) shareholders cannot sell or transfer their shares without offering them first to the other shareholders for purchase, (2) shareholders cannot offer their shares or debentures to the general public over a stock exchange, (3) the number of shareholders cannot exceed a fixed figure (commonly 50).

Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/private-limited-company.html#ixzz1lmW9XUQt
Uždara akcine bendrove

įmonė , kuri su ribota atsakomybe savo akcininkams , bet kad tam tikrus apribojimus jo nuosavybėn . Šie apribojimai yra išdėstyta bendrovės įstatuose ar norminiuose aktuose ir yra skirti užkirsti kelią priešiškam kompanijos perėmimo bandymui.
Pagrindinis nuosavybės apribojimas yra: (1) Akcininkams negali parduoti arba perleisti savo akcijas , siūlo jas kitiems akcininkų įsigyti , (2) Akcininkams negali pasiūlyti savo akcijų ar obligacijų plačiajai visuomenei per tam vertybinių popierių biržoje , (3) akcininkų skaičius negali viršyti nustatytą skaičių (paprastai – 50

Read more: http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=lt&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dprivate%2Blimited%2Bcompany%26hl%3Dlt%26biw%3D634%26bih%3D383%26prmd%3Dimvnsb&rurl=translate.google.lt&sl=en&u=http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/private-limited-company.html&usg=ALkJrhgN4BRs20WZaYL_rf_AQ2t2BDtsXw#ixzz1lmVog8e9

Public limited company – akcinė bendrove
A company whose securities are traded on a stock exchange and can be bought and sold by anyone. Public companies are strictly regulated, and are required by law to publish their complete and true financial position so that investors can determine the true worth of its stock (shares). Also called publicly held company. Public limited company and its abbreviation Plc are commonly used in the UK in the way that corporation and Inc. is used in the United

Bendrovė, kurios vertybiniais popieriais prekiaujama vertybinių popierių biržoje, ir kiekvienas gali būti perkami ir parduodami. Akcinės bendrovės, yra griežtai reglamentuota, ir yra reikalaujama pagal teisės skelbti savo visišką ir teisingą finansinę būklę taip, kad investuotojai galėtų nustatyti tikrąją vertę savo sandėlyje akcijos punkte. Also called publicly held company. Taip pat vadinamas viešai kompanija ,. Public limited company and its abbreviation Plc are commonly used in the UK in the way that corporation and Inc. is used in the United States . Akcinė bendrovė ir jo santrumpa Plc “yra plačiai naudojami taip, kad korporacija Inc naudojama Jungtinėse Amerikos Valstijose, Jungtinėje Karalystėje .

Read more: http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?hl=lt&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dpublic%2Blimited%2Bcompany%26hl%3Dlt%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D526%26prmd%3Dimvnsb&rurl=translate.google.lt&sl=en&u=http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/public-limited-company.html&usg=ALkJrhibDGnwbpKaemJMDYDCnQIw8XYCgA#ixzz1lmX6ugZd

on Oct 28th, 2009Marketing




1. What is market?

2. What is market segmentation?

3. What is market share? Market conditions? Marketplace? Market sector?

4. What is marketing?

5. What does marketing include?

6. What is the product life cycle?

7. What are the selling and marketing concepts?

8. What are the market opportunities?

9. What is market research?

10. What is the “marketing mix”?

11. What is the company-to-company marketing?

12. What is target market (/consumers/customers/audience)?

14. What does branding refer to?

15. What global brands do you know?

16. What pricing strategies do you know?

Make a list of 4 products (goods and services) that are produced or provided in your country.

a local brand of drink

a grocery product (breakfast cereal, health food….)

an industrial product (machines, consumer goods…..)

a place of entertainment (theatre, cinema……)

a public service (telephones, mail, transport……..)

an educational service

Discuss these questions about some of the products you’ve listed:

1. What competition does each product face?

2. What is the image of each product?

3. What is the image of the company that produces it?

4. How strongly or weakly is the products marketed?

5. Where is each product advertised?

What is a product?

What is a product cycle?

 What is a brand, branding, a brand name?

Give examples of brands you think you are loyal. Why are you loyal to them?

Are there any products for which you have no brand preference or loyalty but are what marketers call a “brand-switchers”?


brand name

brand awareness/brand recognition

brand image

brand loyalty

brand stretching/diversification

brand identity

own brands/own labels

product line/range

product mix/portfolio/catalogue

product positioning

product placement


generic products





1. What is advertising?

2. What advertising media do you know?

3. What promotional technigues do you know?

4. How many ads do you think you see or hear on an average day?

5. How many times do you think you have to see an ad or a brand name -a term,  a    symbol, a name given to a product or a group of products for easy recognition- before you remember it? Before it begins to annoy you?

6. What makes an advertisiment memorable or good? humour? originality? endorsement? endless repetition? nuditity? others? What do you think about the advertisements on television?

Use adjectives- clever, intereseting, funny, inspiring, eye-catching,poerful, humorous, shocking, informative, sexy, amusing, worth watching, well-made, artistic, persuasive, artistic

7. Give examples of ads that you have enjoyed and that have persuaded you to buy the product.

8. What kind of advertising do you find offensive?

9. Are you able to ignore commercials on television? at the cinema? ads in the newspapers? on poster hoardings?



Do you agree:

9. Advertising raises prices.

10. Advertising does not present a true picture of products.

11. Advertising has a bad influence on children.

12. People remember advertisements not products.

13. Outdoor advertising is a good thing.

14. Advertising is essential for business.


Cut out 2 or more of your favourite advertisements from a magazine or a newspaper.

1. Following the AIDA principles and USPs write advertising copy for your chosen advertisement.

2. Show the ads to the members of your group of three or four, compare the two ads you have chosen and discuss these points covering:

-The message of the ad (What do you think the ad is trying to say?)

-Target customers/markets (what exactly the product is being „sold“, where the target lives -town, suburbs,rural area, etc, what is the targets age, sex, marital status, income, occupation, level of education, what is the targets social class, how you would describe the targets personality and life style, what benefits the target looks for in the product).

-The USP of the product (Unique Selling Preposition): its features and benefits that make it different from similar products.

-How does the ad works in terms of the four stages of AIDA ? (attract the Attention, develope Interest, create a Desire for its benefits, encourage customers to take prompt Action).

-Compare the language used in the slogans. Does it attract attention quickly? Is it humorous?

-What technique is used in the text (or copy) of the ads? (Is it factual, does it contain a celebrity endorsement-a famous person speaks on behalf of a product, is there no text at all, is the price mentioned)?

-Comment on the artistic content of the ads (photography, special graphics, etc).

-Which advertisements do you think will sell the most products?

-Which is the most creative?

-What would you change ( style, tone) to make the ads suitable for your country?

-Which ad is the best? Why?

-Think of arguments in support or against the advertisement.

Once your group has answered these questions, present the analysis of the ads to the rest of the class and see if they agree with your interpretation. You can also present your findings in a short written composition.


Write down the slogans of your ads on the paper. Hand them out to the other groups to decide what products they think are advertised.

The teacher

Which ad is the best? Why?

Think of arguments in support or against the advertisement.

Use the phrases to describe why you think ads are effective:

In my opinion the ad is aimed at………..

The ad targets…………..

I believe the ad is trying to reach…………

I think the ad is designed (meant, intended) for

This is the ad that really impressed me …

What do you think of this ad? It shows……

This ad seeems to be aimed at………

According to this ad, the USP of the product is…….

What I don‘t like about this ad is…

What‘s your view on…….?

As far as I am concerned……….

In my opinion………..

Well, i suppose…………




market economy-an economic system in which the prices of things depend on how many are available and how many people want to buy them, rather than prices being fixed by governments

market forces-the economic factors that effect the availability of goods and the demand for them, without any help or control by governments.

market conditions-the economic situation that exists within a market.

marketplace-refers to the activity of buying and selling products.

marketsector-is one part of a market, consisting of related products or services.

market position

market share

market forces/pressures

market orientated/market driven/market led/market orientated

after-sales service



brand name


credit facilities




mission staement



market segment

market segmentation

market share

market growth

market leader

multi-brand strategy

niche/niche market

product life cycle

product mix/portfolio/catalogue

generic products

product positioning

product placement/endorsement

own-brand product/own label product

product range/line



distribution channel

focus group

market opportunity

market research


marketing mix


personal selling

point of sale


public relations

primary data, secondary data

target market

advertising account

advertising campaign



comparative-parity method

counter-cyclical advertising

diminishing returns

institutional/prestige advertising

media plan

media space


opportunities to see

sales revenue

threshold effect

promotional tools

word-of-mouth advertising

own brand product

generic products

brand loyalty, recognition, image, stretching, awareness


list price


mark-up/cost-plus pricing

market penetration pricing

market skimming

price fixing

prestige pricing/image pricing

loss leader

odd pricing



sales force



local preferences

consumption patterns

to conform to

to tailor

to customise

to compromise

to corner the market

the process of mining

to meld product ideas


co-ordinate the efforts

to gauge the reaction

conventional market researech

development schedules



premium positioning/price

distribution strategies

distribution outlet





to squeeze out of the market

get out of/leave/abadon a market

depressed market

to penetrate/enter/break into

to saturate/flood

to corner/monopolize

to dominate

the market has collapsed

the market has suffered/has collapsed

consumption patterns

clomid, synthroid, zithromax, accutane, celebrex
clomid, synthroid, zithromax, accutane, celebrex

on Oct 7th, 2009corporate culture and cultural diversity

                                            What is corporate culture?

In the non-academic approach “it is the personality of the organization”.

It includes:

1. core values and beliefs

2. corporate ethics

3. rules of behaviour.

Corporate culture can be expressed in the company’s mission statement, communications, style or interior decorations of the office, by what people wear to work, by how people address each other, in the titles given to various employees.

Corporate culture affects employees in many ways:

the hours of work, including options such as flexitime, telecommuting, homeworking

the work environment, including how employees interact, the degree of competition,  is a fun or hostile environment?

the dress code, including accepted styles of clothing and things such as casual clothes

the office space

training and skills of development available to employees

site perks such as break rooms, gyms…….

the amount of time outside the office you are expected to spend with co-workers

interaction with other employees, including managers and top managers.

What do you think organizations and companies can do to avoid negative written rules?

This can be confusing for people outside the culture who do not understand “unwritten rules”. What unwritten rules you might encounter in your country as an intern in :

a government department;

a small firm;

a manufacturing company?

(Think about office etiquette e.g. dress code, personall calls, lunch breaks, relations with colleagues, management and clients/business partners.)

Which work culture do you prefer to work in?

Which would be the most difficult do adopt to. Why?

Tell what your ideal workplace you would like to be. (physical environment, working hours, managers, meetings, business travel………)  

                                         cultural diversity

Despite of the growth of global brands and some degree of convergence of consumer tastes and habits, there remain enormous cultural differences among different countries.

Culture is the way we do things in a country, a region, a social class, a company, a university..

Neighbouring countries or regions, or two companies in the same industry, tend to see themselves as very different to each other,that difference may be hard for the outsider to grasp at first glance.

Here are some of the intercaltural/cross cultural issues where there are variations in behaviour across different cultures:

Religion. Does it pay a role in business life?

Roles of men and women. Are women found at the highest levels of business and society?


Levels of formality in language and behaviour

Conversation and discussion. Settings (formal and informal meetings, social situations, etc., body language, eye contact)

Dress for different settings and occasions

The relation of work to private life. Are the spouses expected  to attend certain types of events. Do business people invite  colleagues and contacts to their houses?

Time. Punctuality, planning, the working day/week/year. Meals, holidays.

This clearly presents a dilemma to multinational corporations:

should they attempt to export their management methods to all the subsidaries, or should they adapt their methods to the local culture in each country or continent? 

The anthropologist, Edward T. Hall,  describes what are known as high and low context countries.

                 High-context countries/collectivist cultures (meaning is not always put into words, a lot of things are taken for granted, time is regarded more flexible, there is less concern for getting things done to a schedule, have a policy for promotion by seniority, rewards are expected to come with experience and age, it takes time to get to know the person, status is automatically accorded who is more likely to be in his fifties, the companies have the policy of promotion by seniority 














               Low-context countries/individualist cultures (status has to be achieved, a young , dynamis manager can quickly rise in the hierarchy, the principle of pay-for-performance, meaning is put into words, there is less chance of misunderstanding

on Oct 1st, 2009Management

Which of these statements do you agree with:

A manager should:

1. know when  your birthday is

2. know where you are and what you’re doing at all times during working hours

3. not criticise or praise

4. not interfere in disagreements between members of staff

 5. not ask people to do things they’re not prepared to do themselves

6. keep their distance from satff and not get involved in socialising outside work

8. use polite language at all times

9. work longer hours than their staff

10. comment on the personal appearance of their staff


What is the differnence between leaders  and managers?

How would you describe the ideal manager?

How have management styles changed in the last few years?

What is empowerment?

Which would you prefer to work for: a male or a female boss?

Would you be authoritarian or approachable?

Use the vocabulary to answer the questions:

leadership, subordinates, charisma, leadership skills, drive, dynamism, energy, consensus, top-down approach, charisma, flair, authoritarian, coaching, mentoring, initiative, empowerment, decentralised, bureaucratic, to delegate, delegation, to be committed to, considerate, creative, decisive, diplomatic, efficient, flexible, inspiring, interested, demanding, logical, organised, rational, responsible, sociable, supportive.

Put contrasting management styles into 2 columns:

autocratic, collaborative, centralising, controlling, directive, delegating, empowering, democratic, hands-on, people-orientated, laissez-faire, task-orientated 

What is small talk?

What topics are appropriate (not suitable)  for small talk?

on Nov 5th, 2007Sveiki,

Sveiki atvykę į dėstytojos Daivos Užpalienės  tinklalapį